The pathophysiology of Gastrointestinal bleeding from the stomach

Gastrointestinal bleeding (GI bleed) or gastrointestinal hemorrhage, is a term collectively given to bleeding from the mouth to the rectum of the gastrointestinal tract. When the bleeding persists, various other symptoms may occur such as melena (black, tarry stools), coffee ground vomitus, hematemesis (vomiting bright red blood), chest pain, abdominal pain etc.

GI bleeding can be upper gastrointestinal bleeding (upper esophagus, stomach, and duodenum) or lower gastrointestinal bleeding (colon and rectum). Peptic or stomach ulcers are among the causes of gastrointenstinal bleeding most commonly found in the patients with upper GI bleeding.

Outlining pathophysiology of bleeding due to peptic ulcer

GI bleeding is a signal of having a digestive disorder and peptic ulcers have various etiologies leading to the development of sores in the mucosal lining of the stomach. The common symptoms of a stomach ulcer include upper abdominal pain, vomiting, poor appetite etc. In almost 15% of the patients with gastric ulcer, GI bleed is found to occur. When the pH of the stomach becomes too acidic by the oversecretion of gastric acids such as HCl and pepsin, the mucosal lining forming protective barrier is degraded which increases causing erosion and subsequently ulcers.

The main causes of peptic ulcer are:

  • Helicobacter pylori (H. Pylori) infection:  pH-sensitive bacteria that penetrate the mucosal layer and colonize, causing stomach infection and inflammation.
  • Use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) aspirin, ibuprofen, etc causes topical irritation of epithelial cells of the lining initially and inhibits COX-2 (Cyclooxygenase) enzyme-induced production of protective prostaglandins.
  • Smoking and alcohol
  • Radiation therapy
  • Stomach cancer

Diagnosis starts with taking a medical history, validating symptoms, examination and blood tests like a fecal occult blood test to confirm the bleeding. An immediate upper endoscopy helps in locating the area of bleeding and further treatment of the ulcers. Hospitalization and blood transfusion may be needed in very severe cases when antibiotics, acid blockers, etc do not work effectively.

 

The Major Danger Signs of Alcohol Abuse

Drinking Issues is majorly classified into Problem Drinking and Alcohol Dependence. Problem Drinkers are not fully addicted to alcohol but gradually their drinking habit hinder their everyday lives and over a period of time, they become Alcohol Dependents. Hence, problem drinkers or their loved ones should be able to identify the important alcohol abuse danger signs and prevent from the increased risk of becoming Alcohol Dependents by taking up a Detox Program. Here are some important signs one should look out for.

  1. Hiding and Lying About Drinking – People who have drinking problems often deny about their habit. This is the most common thing found both in problem drinkers and in alcoholics. They either secretively drink or lie about the amount they drink so that it does not become an issue. This is the most important and common problem.
  2. Drinking to Feel Relaxed – Most of the people with a drinking problem do so to ease out stress, depression, anxiety and other emotion-related problems. This is a risky thing to do and is not going to be a permanent solution. Alcohol cannot be used as an emotional let out.
  3. Losing Memory – If drinking goes off-limit, it might lead to memory loss about what happened. It is not fun to black out.
  4. Loss of Control – If one loses control over the amount they drink, it certainly is a danger sign.
  5. Drinking in inappropriate situations – If a person is tempted to drink just before work time, before driving to some place or drinking against doctor’s advice, then there is problem drinking.
  6. Ignoring Responsibilities – If problems arise at work, school or home due to drinking, then it certainly means that the person has crossed the line and it is becoming a serious issue.
  7. Troubled Relationships – If friends, near and dear ones are having problems because of a person’s drinking problem, then it means that drinking is going into addiction stage.
  8. Tolerance – It is an important sign as it allows the person to drink more than he used to, without any indications. This means that the body has been exposed to alcohol and has adapted to it.
  9. Withdrawal – Withdrawal is the reaction that the body gives due to lack of alcohol. The person will feel irritated, tired, depressed and a lot other symptoms if he didn’t have a drink.
  10. Unable to Quit Drinking – Even if the person tries to quit drinking, he or she might find it unsuccessful and might need additional help to do so.

Experiencing one or few of these signs does not mean that a person has become alcoholic but it certainly means that it is time to stop drinking.

Tips To Train Like A UFC Fighter

Ultimate Fighting Championship is one of the most watched and followed championships in the world. UFC is a company that promotes Mixed Martial Arts. The fighters are the best and the fittest and they have a huge following worldwide.

MMA is one of the fastest growing sport today. It is a full combat sport that allows full body contact. It involves and promoted all disciplines like jujitsu, boxing, wrestling, karate, judo and so on. With so many disciplines involved, training regiments vary according to the disciplines they belong to. While endurance, strength and quick reflexes are a must, what is critical is an ability to be able to have short and repetitive bursts of intense and explosive energy. So, what are some of the things you can do to emulate the same kind of workouts:

  1. Building stamina through intense strength building workout sessions. A session consists of 5 different sets, each set working for a muscle group.
  2. You must follow a strict strength training regimen. It can be accomplished by performing six different exercises on the same muscle group. Repetitions of the exercises in sets until you have covered all muscle groups.
  3. You should spar on a regular basis. This is to develop your strength, stamina and to replicate cage-fight like conditions. Sparring should be done carefully to build strength in areas you lack while at the same time you protect yourself from injuries. It is necessary to fuel your body with healthy food and to focus on staying hydrated.
  4. A big part of training involves throws, punches, lifting and punching. All of them test your strength immensely. One way to work on it to use a weighted vest to build a lean but strong body. Adding such a vest will help you to train by pushing your body to the limits. Such a weighted vest used by many UFC fighters to improve and progress with every workout.

How Do Weight Gainers Help Gain Muscle Mass?

Though we call them weight gainers, they are not merely to gain weight. They only add to your weight by increasing your muscle mass. This is something that bodybuilders or those who work out to gain muscle strength would look for. If you look at the top muscle mass gainers, they all have one feature in common, they help you add muscle mass without causing unwanted weight or fat gain in your body. So how do they do it?

The weight gain you see would come from the added muscle mass and strength. These supplements are usually available in several forms for easy consumption. They come in the form of powders that can be mixed with water or milk and can even replace your meal after the workout or before. Besides all the benefits of helping you gain muscle mass, they also help you meet the calorie requirements and the protein demands of your body.

More calories would result in weight gain. By customizing your workouts suck that you focus on the areas that should bulk up and the areas that should get a trim while you take mass gainer supplements, you can achieve the physique you have always dreamt of. The extra calories that the mass gainer supplements have would be absorbed by the body and used to bulk up the muscle. The newly developing muscle, when worked with, would give great results. So you would be able to tone them and make them firmer easily. The key is to strictly adhere to the directions to consume the mass gainer. But remember that each body type varies and even based on the gender, the way the body react to the supplement would differ. So consult with your trainer to evaluate and suggest for you the best mass gainer supplement to help build muscle mass.